What is there to say about the Handitaur? Is it merely a mythological outcrop in the expanding field of novelty toys? Part of the ongoing boom in adultescence? Does it participate in the ongoing symbolism of the Centaur (the duality of animal and human; of lust and intellect; of thought and play)?
I suspect these items serve as totems of learning worn lightly. In the midst of the internet revolution, industrial revolution, the shift in education towards the bluntly utilitarian, there’s something to be said for holding fast to one’s Handitaur, holding on to the power of humour, of downright silliness, but also of fantasy. It’s no coincidence that fantasy is surging through popular culture, testimony to the power of play in uncertain times.
Dorota Bazylczyk is a postgraduate student in the Faculty of Artes Liberales, at the University of Warsaw. Her PhD is funded by the ERC, through the Our Mythical Childhood project. She is working on the function of mythology in Italian children’s literature. It is my great pleasure to introduce her work here, in the first of a small series of posts on Laura Orvieto (1876-1953), a pioneer in retelling mythology for young Italians. –Elizabeth Hale
Laura Orvieto (7 March 1876, Milan – 9 March 1953, Florence) was a famous Italian-Jewish author of books for children. She dedicated most of her works to Greek and Roman mythology. In 1911, she began her famous book series, titled Storie della storia del mondo. Greche e barbare (“Stories of the History of the World. Stories of Greece and the Barbarians”). It was the first Italian mythology addressed directly to very young readers. It became a milestone in its field and a very important base for Italian authors and scholars interested in writing for young readers/interested in the transmission of myth for young readers. (See, for instance, Grandi, William, La musa bambina. La letteratura mitologica italiana per ragazzi tra storia, narrazione e pedagogia., Edizioni Unicopli, 2011, Milano.)
Orvieto went on to write three more historical-mythological works: Beppe racconta la Guerra (1928), Il Natale di Roma (The Birth of Rome) (1927) and La forza di Roma (1933). Her last work published before the war was titled Storie di bambini molti antichi (1937). It was also aimed at children. (Sadly, its distribution was quickly blocked because of the adoption of the fascist Italian Racial Laws in 1938.) After the war, Orvieto edited a children’s newspaper. Her works are now in wide circulation, and have been published in new editions, and translated into a number of languages.
While the book turned out to be interesting in many aspects, not least the mythological retellings, its role in Italian cultural studies is the main focus of my attention. A careful analysis of many myths presented by Orvieto reveals that she “smuggled” a lot of Italian elements into the world of the mythical characters, trying to bring the ancient stories closer to the Italian children living in her times. Most of the Italian references hidden in the text were not so obvious to me at first, so I decided to start looking for their deeper meaning. The results of my search turned out to be very interesting.
Selecting Relevant Myths
First and foremost, Orvieto made a specific selection of the myths. Many of them talk about the characters strongly associated with the culture of the ancient Rome, like Saturn (God of agriculture and time), Mercury (Roman god of commerce), Bacchus (God of wine), Diana (Goddess of moon an hunting) or are happening partially on Italian soil (for example the myth about Hephaestus, which takes place in Sicily). Let’s take a closer look at one of the fragments of the myth of Saturn, where Orvieto describes Italy:
Scese giu’ dall’Olimpo traverso’ la Grecia senza fermarsi, con la sua falce sule spalle passo’ il mare, e approdo’ a una penisola lunga, verde, bellissima, che si lanciava sul mare e forma di stivale. Era l’Italia (. . . .) In Italia c’era allora un antico re, che si chiamava Giano (p. 33).
With his scythe on his shoulders, he came down from the Olympus and walk across Greece without making any stops. Then he stepped on the sea, and landed on a long, green and beautiful peninsula, which was lying on the water in the form of a boot. It was Italy. (. . . ) In Italy, one ancient king was already ruled – he was called Janus.
Fragments such as this show that ancient culture is particularly close for Italians. Living on the Apennine peninsula, they treat the ancient Roman world as if it was their own and direct cultural heritage. (It seems that in the times of Orvieto, this connection between the past and the present was emphasized the most strongly, mainly through the politics of Mussolini who even wanted to rebuild the Roman Empire).
Telling Ancient Myths in Italian Ways
Another meaningful Italian aspect is the specific form of narration used in the book. It is developed in the form of a storytelling, which was always Orvieto’s favorite. In one of her letters to Luigi Tonelli, she wrote:
Ecco, ho sempre, da quando mi posso ricordare, raccontato storie ai bambini; chiedevo a tutti di raccontarne a me, e quando non potevo trovar nessuno, ne raccontavo io ai più piccoli…
Since I can remember, I was always telling stories to children…I was asking everyone to tell me some stories, and when I could not find anyone, I was telling them to the little ones . . .
The situation of “storytelling” is very significant when it comes to the history of Italian’s literature and the genre of Italian fairytales. It is worth recalling that famous works, such as Le Piacevoli Notti by Giovanni Francesco Straparola (containing probably the first Italian fairytales), Decamerone by Giovanni Boccaccio (important work full of tales and stories) or Lo cunto de li cunti written by Gimabattista Basile (probably the main prototype for Grimm’s), were also based on a similar type of narration (cornice narrative , or ‘frame narrative’ in English) where we deal with stories within stories.
In Storie di bambini molto antichi the frame story is the situation of storytelling by the Italian woman/mother (or the author herself), who tells the myths to children. She is deciding which myths will be told on which day. Children are also active in the story – they are very happy to talk to the narrator:
Oggi quale storie si racconta? Quella di Dioniso, quella di Ermes o quella di Ercole?
Quella di Ercole e troppo lunga, e quella di Dioniso non ho voglia di dirla oggi. Si racconterà quella di Ermes.
Children: Which story will be told today? The one of Dionysus, the one of Hermes or the one of Hercules?
Narrator: That of Hercules is too long and I don’t want to talk about Dionysus today. Let’s talk about Hermes.
The other situation presented in the book are the myths themselves.
Orvieto decides to follow the storytelling motif to include many appositions to the presented stories. Thanks to this device, the Italian omniscient mamma, who narrates the myths to the little ones, can use multiple links to help them understand the faith of the main characters:
Nella storia della Bella Addormentata non ci sono le fate buone che fanno bei doni alla principessina quando nasce, e ce n’e una, che porta il suo, di male? Cosi fu quand o nacque Febo Apollo, il figlio di Zeus e di Latona .
In the story of “Sleeping Beauty” there are no good fairies who make beautiful gifts to the princess when she is born. There is only one who is evil and who brings something bad. The same happened when Febo (Apollo), the son of Zeus and Latona was born.
The Italian mamma gives advice to her listeners, linking the ancient myths to the timeless tradition of storytelling, bringing antiquity even closer to young readers.
— Dorota Bazylczyk
In Dorota’s next post, she will continue this theme, this time talking about the way that Orvieto uses modern Italian food to contextualise ancient myths for her young readers. Join us next time for another tasty morsel …