Thinking about Nature with Donna Jo Napoli’s Fish Girl…

Like so many of us, I’ve been thinking a lot about Nature lately–I’m sure don’t need to tell you why.  As part of the Our Mythical Childhood project, I’m thinking about how children’s writers and illustrators use myth to make sense of the natural world: what it is, how it works, how we live in it–how we should take care of it–what happens when we don’t.  Children are natural beings, and yet as adults, we’re aware that the human race has not done well by nature–seeing it as something to be plundered and exploited, rather than cherished and nurtured.  How we talk about it in their books has implications, and ramifications.  (It’s great to see children’s illustrators joining together to support children in their concerns about the environment.)

One set of myths that highlight our relation to nature centre on the figure of the mermaid–half woman, half fish–caught between worlds.  Stories like Andersen’s The Little Mermaid, TV series like H2O: Just Add Wateror films like Miyazaki’s Ponyo highlight human exploitation of the seas–through fishing, through pollution–and encourage a more respectful relation between both. Meanwhile Jessica Love’s Julian is a Mermaid, as I’ve discussed, explores diversity and respect for difference.

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Fish Girl, a lovely graphic novel by Donna Jo Napoli and David Wiesner, explores these ideas, and more, in a story about isolation, exploitation, and eventual escape and survival.  Fish Girl is the story of a mermaid who was kidnapped as a baby by a fisherman who found her in his catch. Seeing financial opportunity, he set up a seaside attraction in an old house, calling it ‘Ocean Wonders,’ posing as Neptune, the ‘god of seas and storms,’ and charging visitors $2 to ‘see the mysterious fish girl.’ The mermaid is captive in a large tank, which she shares with fish and an octopus, and which is decorated like a girl’s bedroom. The mermaid’s job is to play hide-and-seek with visitors, who try to see her in her tank, and to collect the pennies they have thrown into the tank. She has reached adolescence, and her best friend is a red octopus.

Eventually, the mermaid meets a human girl, and they become friends.  The tank suddenly seems more confining and lonely, and the mermaid finds a way to leave it, to join the outside world. It’s a lovely, but melancholy book, highlighting the melancholy at the heart of mermaid myths, such as the Little Mermaid, and reminiscent in places of novels of kidnapping and isolation, such as Room.  The melancholy story is supported by David Wiesner’s delicate illustrations–the colour palette, of blues and greens and corals, entirely appropriate, but also making glancing allusions to Disney’s Little Mermaid, or Studio Ghibli’s Ponyo.

Children’s books don’t have to be direct to make serious points–and Fish Girl invites us to think about the natural world–its power, and its fragility–our place in it, and our responsibility for it.

I took my enjoyment of this lovely book as an excuse to write to Donna Jo Napoli, to interview her for the Our Mythical Childhood survey.  Donna Jo is a widely published author and academic.  She’s a linguist and a teacher, has a degree in Mathematics, and on top of all that, has a voluminous output of retellings and adaptations of myths, fairytales, and folklore, as well as stories about nature and inspirational people.  It was a delight to interview her.

 

Interview with Donna Jo Napoli

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1. What drew you to writing/working with Classical Antiquity and what challenges did you face in selecting, representing, or adapting particular myths or stories? 

I think it started with my high school Latin teacher, Mrs. Reynolds. She brought the old tales to life — all their passion and intrigue and misery. I got involved in the Latin club, and then in the Latin Forum of the State of Florida. I even ran a state forum one year. When I went to college, I didn’t follow up on Latin. But in graduate school, I had to pass a test in reading Latin. I decided not to prepare for it, but just go in and see what happened. I passed — after four years away from Latin. And that’s because Mrs. Reynolds was so terrific. The experience reminded me of how much I loved those stories. After that I went for years not doing anything with Latin. But in Spring 2013, a classics professor at Swarthmore, Rosaria Munson, and I co-taught a course on The Hero’s Journey. We looked at Virgil’s Aeneid, then Dante’s Divina Commedia, then Eugenio Montale’s poetry — all in the original Latin, then Old Italian, then modern Italian — talking about historical change in language as well as variations on the themes in the different works. It was thrilling reading the Aeneid again. And it was thrilling seeing the relevance of the old works to modern life.

In FISH GIRL I didn’t think of any particular myth. Rather, I tried to use the ancient feeling that the seas are full of potential. Mysterious creatures live and rule there. Ordinary understandings of how life works don’t necessarily hold. Though David and I didn’t put in any snakes growing out of heads or talking animals, we allowed the octopus to grow to enormous size and then shrink again, where emotions were the key to the size changes. And we allowed the fish in Fish Girl’s tank to recognize that she was somehow changing and to respond accordingly.

2. Why do you think classical / ancient myths, history, and literature continue to resonate with young audiences? 

We know a great deal of facts about the world now, many more than the ancients did. But we still lack understanding of many things. For example, we don’t even really know how it is that trees manage to pump water up from the ground to their crowns. We’ve rejected osmosis as the answer — but there is no presently agreed upon answer. And that is a rather mundane thing — something happening around us all the time, but we haven’t a clue about what’s going on. We are much more in the dark about the arcane things. And the more we learn about both life on earth and space way out there, the more we recognize how little we truly understand.

The ancients tried to give reasons for everything… for earthquakes and tsunamis and lightning. They sought to see a comprehensive picture. And within that picture, they tried to adjust to the vagaries of human behavior. I think young people today would like a comprehensive picture within which they could make some kind of sense of the natural world and human behavior within it. It is comforting to see characters in the ancient tales struggle with the same human foibles we struggle with. And it is comforting to see that they too were stupified by natural events around them… different natural events from the ones that stupify us today, perhaps… but no less enigmatic.

3. Do you have a background in classical education (Latin or Greek at school or classes at the University?) What sources are you using? Scholarly work? Wikipedia? Are there any books that made an impact on you in this respect?  

Ah, I answered some of that in question 1. For most fiction work I do that is placed in classical times, I use translations into English of Homer, Hesiod, and Apollodorus. I stay away from Wikipedia on this — although I love Wikipedia for many other things (it is a great source of information about languages and linguistics, for example, because the Linguistic Society of America urges its members to add information to Wikipedia and correct anything that’s dubious).

Did you think about how Classical Antiquity would translate for young readers? Absolutely. I did a book for National Geographic called Treasury of Greek Mythology. In there I chose to present the stories that I most love. They were written in Greek, of course, and I don’t read Greek, so I had to look at translations. An interesting thing about translations is that the same story is quite differently translated by scholars in different points of history…. or that’s what I concluded from my very small and limited study. Looking at translations from the 1700s through today, I found myself making choices based on my own sensibilities — which is what I’m sure those translators did. I also read many of the stories in Latin — in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. I suspect that Ovid influenced me most. Certainly with respect to the creation tale. Ovid’s words swirl and transform themselves, wonderfully evocative and still illusive. I aimed for that sense in my rendering of the creation tale.

4. How concerned were you with “accuracy” or “fidelity” to the original? (another way of saying that might be—that I think writers are often more “faithful” to originals in adapting its spirit rather than being tied down at the level of detail—is this something you thought about?) 

Yes, this is a major concern I had, more so in Treasury than in Fish Girl, since Fish Girl was a character that David and I created in a more-nearly modern world. For Treasury I always used the details that were in the originals — I never changed them. But I added a modern psychology, which was a personal choice, but I expect that choice was unavoidable. That is, I cannot help but see the behaviors of characters as reflecting the way I, as a person of today, understand human behavior.

5. Are you planning any further forays into classical material? 

I don’t plan far ahead. Whatever I’m working on at the moment is my world. Presently, I’m deep into the world of the Ancient Hebrews. But I’m nearly finished with this project. Where I will go next is unclear to me. I have a story in my head set in India in the late 1800s, and I’d like to work on that. But interruptions happen — and I am always open to happy serendipities. Will I ever return to the classical world of Greece? I can’t know that — but the stories are eternal fonts of wisdom and pain — so I hope I do.

6. Anything else you think we should know? 

Ha! what a funny question. But I will answer it. People often assume that I know more than I know. It’s as though working with the classics gives you an aura of respectability and of nearly encyclopedic knowledge. The truth is, I bumble through things. I’m not afraid to deal with what I don’t understand, because I understand so little that if I let that fear stop me, I wouldn’t write anything. And, you know, if I fully understood things, I would have no motivation to write. For me, writing is a way of tackling problems, a way of trying to get a sense a peace. But rarely do I ever feel I “know” something or truly “understand” it.

 

Thank you!

—Elizabeth Hale

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The Fall of Troy as Space Opera Graphic Novel

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“Who would think that such a disaster could be started by something as small as an apple? Yet it could have been just one of those instances where small things can lead to larger things.  Take the right circumstances, the right events, and the right kind of people, and a carefully line of dominoes can be knocked over with just a flick of the finger . . .” Ash Hulme– ‘Troy’

One of the best things about the Our Mythical Childhood project is discovering the incredible creativity that exists in the community.  I think of it as home-made classics.  

When I was in Dunedin last year, I met Ash Hulme, who showed me “Troy,” the graphic novel she has been working on.  It’s a space opera version of the Iliad, and I was blown away by its clarity and inventiveness.  I’ve asked Ash if I can share some pages from it, and included a short written interview with her.  — Elizabeth Hale.

Why Classical Myths?

It may be a cliché, but I think it is in my genes to be drawn to stories and storytelling. I can’t remember a time when I wasn’t. I’m a huge fan of many (what we might call) modern “myths” – Star Trek, Star Wars, Game of Thrones, and other such incredibly complex creations that have wormed their way into our consciousness, becoming almost independent of their original settings or creators.

What has always amazed me, and perhaps even drew me to the Classical myths to begin with, is how incredibly complex and “alive” they seem, even without an identifiable author (in the sense that we know that George Lucas is primarily responsible for Star Wars). Who created these things? The answer is (simultaneously) nobody, and everybody, and that to me is fascinating. At the same time, the much simpler and probably more powerful attraction is that these are genuinely ripping tales.

If I had to point to a singular reason why younger audiences connect so readily with the Classical period, this would have to be it. Children and young adults love the Greek myths for the same reason that such authors as Paul Jennings and Roald Dahl (and modern tales like Captain Underpants) are as popular as they are: because young people are naturally drawn to the absurd, unsettling, amusing, and even mildly gross. The idea of a man chopping up his nephews and feeding them to his brother would horrify us were it to happen in reality. But we are also fixated and titillated for the same reason that we so enjoy tales of “true crime”, and this is equally if not especially true of kids. They’re dark little beings – which is something that most popular children’s authors understand only too well.

***

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copyright Ash Hulme, ‘Troy,’ p 4. 2018

Adaptations

The most surprising thing (to me) about my graphic novel, Troy, is how easy it was to adapt to a space opera setting. Possibly the only indicator that this isn’t taking place in the ancient Mediterranean is the art. Chariots are more like floating scooters; “ships” are spaceships; Olympus is a space station; and there may occasionally be a robot in the background. But the sci-fi elements haven’t really done much to change the essential script, and occasionally I even forget that this isn’t taking place in the original (ancient) setting. Still, this may be because so much speculative fiction is heavily based on the same mythic archetypes.

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copyright Ash Hulme, ‘Troy,’ p 19. 2018

I had the plays of the Greek tragedians as source material, and Homer of course, but most of my research was to sit in the library for hours and copy out some sections from an encyclopaedia of classical myth (my apologies; I forget which one). My process for selecting material (which I may come to regret!) was to include everything that I could get my hands on to do with the Trojan War, while still retaining something close to a cohesive narrative. In particular, I made a note of anything that I thought was funny. This is important, I think, because any war narrative can get quite dark and violent, and there needs to be a lighter side to balance it out.

The Future?

As for future projects, who knows? Most of my prose draws on the Classical tradition in some respect, but more in the sense of fantasy tropes, which do draw heavily from mythology. I have written a couple of fanfics, but nothing very serious. I guess it’s a question of “never say never”, except that I do want to continue working on Troy. The myths are nothing if not engaging. I always had an idea in my head that I would one day write a graphic novel, but I’m a novelist by inclination. I like art, although I can be a bit of a lazy artist, and none of my comic book ideas ever seemed to “stick” before I started on this one.

I honestly didn’t put much initial thought into how it would be received by others, not until my friends and family started to respond as well as they did. If anything, it was an outlet for my own obsession, when other people (especially my mother) got annoyed that I was talking about mythology all the time. That said, I probably wouldn’t have been able to stick with it as long as I have without other people’s positive responses. But my main purpose for engaging with this material is still largely because I enjoy the artistic process, and to find a way to express my interest without annoying the pants off everyone around me.

— Ash Hulme*

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Ash Hulme in the ‘belly’ of the Trojan Horse . . . author’s photo.

*Queries about Troy can be sent to antipodeanodyssey@gmail.com

Oh those Olympians! George O’Connor’s gorgeous graphic novels….

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–Sonya Nevin

ps,  Check out Olympians Rule here at their brilliant website.  http://olympiansrule.com/